Born........................................March 15, 1837
Made Asst. Dist. Atty. of Erie County........January, 1863
Defeated for Dist. Atty.....................November, 1865
Elected Sheriff of Erie County..............November, 1871
Elected Mayor of Buffalo....................November, 1881
Elected Gov. of New York....................November, 1882
Nominated for Presidency......................July 8, 1884
Elected President...............................Nov., 1884
First term began.............................March 4, 1885
Married Frances Folsom........................June 2, 1886
Defeated for re-election....................November, 1888
Re-elected President........................November, 1982 [sic.]
Second term began............................March 4, 1893
Wrote Venezuelan Message.................December 17, 1895
Second term expired..........................March 4, 1897
Died.........................................June 24, 1908
Special to the New York Times.
PRINCETON, N.J., June 24. -- Grover Cleveland, twice President of the United
States, died at 8:30 o'clock this morning at his home here, with his wife
at his bedside.
The only others in the sick chamber, besides the nurse were
his friend of long standing, Dr. Joseph D. Bryant, and two other physicians.
His children were away at the Cleveland New England home, Tamworth, N.H.
The end came unexpectedly to the general public and to the former President's hosts of friends as well. Its announcement has thrown the Nation into mourning and created profound sorrow in the little university town where he had lived quietly with his family and his books since he withdrew from public life. All day messages attesting their keen regret have poured in here from every part of the country.
Mr. Cleveland having been in ill-health since last Fall, the hurried arrival of the three physicians at the family home late yesterday gave rise to fears that his illness had taken a serious turn. Mrs. Cleveland set all misgivings at rest by a statement in which she declared her husband safely on the road to recovery.
Failure of the heart's action following complications of pulminary thrombosis and oedema, is given as the immediate cause of death by Dr. Bryant, who came here from New York on Tuesday.
For many years Mr. Cleveland had been a victim of severe gastric attacks and a sufferer from rheumatic gout, ailments which, according to his physicians, induced the attack of heart weakness to which he succumbed. With Mrs. Cleveland and Dr. Bryant in the death chamber were Dr. R.L. Lockwood of New York and Dr. J.M. Carnochan of Princeton. Mr. Cleveland's four surviving children, Esther, aged 14; Marion, 12; Richard, 10; and Francis Grover, 5, are at the Cleveland Summer home in New Hampshire with Mrs. Cleveland's mother.
When it was found that the ex-President would be a long time convalescing from the serious illness which gave his friends so much alarm this Spring, the children were sent to the Summer home Mr. Cleveland built two years ago at Tamworth, N.H. Esther and Richard were summoned after their father's death, and are expected here to-morrow.
Messages from Everywhere.
Scarcely had the announcement gone forth that Mr. Cleveland had passed away before the telegraph
offices here were swamped with messages bearing expressions of condolence
and sympathy to Mrs. Cleveland.
In a peculiar degree these messages bore
evidence of the profound sorrow aroused by the death tidings and how great
was the esteem in which the departed former Executive of the Nation was held, and how wide was the circle of his admirers.
One of the first messages was from President Roosevelt, who had been informed of Mr. Cleveland's death through a telegram sent by Mrs. Cleveland shortly after her husband passed away. Mrs. Cleveland also sent a message to Secretary Taft. The Secretary of War had not been heard from at a late hour.
The first public knowledge of Mr. Cleveland's death came in a statement signed by Drs. Bryant, Lockwood, and Carnochan. Dr. Bryant, later in the day, amplified this with a further statement in which he said that up to within twenty-four hours of death the ex-President was in the same condition in which he had been for the last few days, a very sick man, but that there was no real cause for alarm until twenty-four hours ago, when he had a severe attack of heart failure. After that time there were intermittent spells of consciousness. Death was due to a sudden attack of heart weakness.
Beyond the scant announcement as to his death, all details regarding Mr. Cleveland's illness and his last hours were denied to newspaper correspondents who called at the house of mourning. Mrs. Cleveland, it was said, was averse to any publicity regarding the scene at the deathbed.
The ex-President passed his last hours in a large room on the second floor of the Cleveland residence, which he had occupied as a bedroom since his return from Lakewood about three weeks ago. Connected with this bedroom in the rear of the house was a large study, where Mr. Cleveland, when not confined to his bed, pored over his books and did his literary work.
A Sudden Turn for the Worse.
Mr. Cleveland suffered his first attack of heart failure at 2 o'clock yesterday
Mrs. Cleveland was hastily summoned by Miss Deckler, the trained
She found the patient in such a grave condition that she at once summoned Drs. Bryant and Lockwood from New York.
Both physicians arrived
on the 4:24 train yesterday afternoon.
By this time Mr. Cleveland, although
still in a very serious condition, had rallied from his first attack, and
this undoubtedly led to the optimistic statement made last night by Mrs.
This statement had scarcely been given to the press, however, before Mr. Cleveland suffered a relapse. This second attack, while not as severe as the first, found him in a weak and nervous condition, with his strength spent in fighting off the first stroke. It soon became apparent that the patient was in an extremely critical condition. At this juncture Dr. Carnochan, the local family physician, was hurriedly sent for.
The three physicians labored over the distinguished sufferer for several hours, but he failed to rally in response to their ministrations. At times he lapsed into unconsciousness, then came back to a realization of what was going on about him, but was very weak. He turned faintly on his bed and talked incoherently in a voice so faint that it was impossible at times to distinguish his words. He seemed to suffer intensely from his heart.
His Final Hours.
Mrs. Cleveland's apartments are directly across
the hall from the rooms her husband occupied, but she was in the sick room
most of the night watching the efforts of the three physicians to save her
It was not until midnight that it became apparent to the three physicians that their patient was a dying man.
From midnight on Mr. Cleveland lingered in a semi-comatose condition, with only the brief intervals of consciousness, until the end came at 8:40 o'clock this morning.
Mrs. Cleveland is bearing up well under her loss. Immediately after her husband's death she wrote to her mother, Mrs. Perrine, who had to break to the four children the sad news that they had lost their father. Mrs. Cleveland then asked that Prof. Andrew F. West and Prof. John D. Hibbins, both of Princeton and intimate friends and neighbors of the family, be sent for. Later in the day they were joined by Mr. and Mrs. Richard Watson Gilder of New York and President Finley of the City College and by Cleveland F. Bacon, a New York Lawyer, who is a nephew of the dead statesman. To-night they are at the Cleveland residence rendering all assistance in their power to the bereaved widow.
While the announcement of Mr. Cleveland's death had already sped over the wires across the continent and ocean, Princeton was yet in ignorance of the sad event within its gates. It was not until long after the instruments in the telegraph offices had commenced to spell out the story of praise and homage to his memory that the neighbors of the departed statesman became aware that Princeton had lost its most distinguished citizen.
Town Long in Ignorance.
It was only when the undertaker's wagon was driven up to the Cleveland home
that Princeton got to know.
Then all at once it became evident how much the former President was thought of in the community he had selected for
his home at the expiration of this second term in the White House.
Flags at half mast are to be seen everywhere, and for a while immediately after the news was generally known the ordinary activities of the day halted.
Announcement was made to-night fixing on the hour of the funeral for 5 o'clock on Friday afternoon. It was announced that the funeral would be strictly private, and in order to make this more emphatic the two words had been underlined in the typewritten announcement.
President and Mrs. Roosevelt will be in attendance.
It was said by a friend of the family that Mrs. Cleveland, in screening from the public gaze the closing scenes of life which in a very real sense had belonged to the public, was deferring to the wishes of her dead husband, who intensely disliked ostentation and display.
Mr. Cleveland will be laid at rest in Princeton Cemetery in a plot where his daughter, Ruth, who died two years ago, lies buried.
Over 1,000 messages of sympathy and condolence have been received. They came from all parts of the country and from all classes and conditions of men.
Messages of Condolences.
Mrs. Cleveland declined
to permit the publication of but a few of the hundreds of messages of condolence
which are reaching her from all parts of the country, but to-night she issued
a statement containing the names of those who had sent them.
Here is a partial
Gov. Ansel of South Carolina, Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller of the United States Supreme Court, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Carnegie, Secretary of State John S. Whalen, Albany; Joseph Jefferson, Buzzard's Bay; Townsend Hildreth, Warner Colwell, St. Louis; J.G. Phelps Stokes, Whitelaw Reid, John Hays Hammond, N.Y. State Supreme Court Justice Charles Truax, W.R. Steinway, New York; Gen. John W. Wilson, U.S.A; Judson Harmon, Cleveland, Ohio; State Controller Martin H. Glynn, Albany; Thomas P. Egan, William H. Truesdale, R.D. Evans, George M. Eckels, ex-Justice Morgan J. O'Brien, Charles W. Goodyear, New York; George H. Morgan, Lenox, Mass.; George S. Wood, Plattsburg, N.Y.; Herbert S. Saterlee, David H. Sickels, Atlanta, Ga.; H.B. Hollins, New York; Francis Lynde Stetson, New York; Mr. and Mrs. George Westinghouse, Eugene T. Chamberlain, New York; Alton B. Parker, Gov. John Franklin Fort of New Jersey, United States Senator George N. Culberson of Texas, John S. Wise, Gov. Glenn of North Carolina, Secretary of Commerce and Labor Oscar F. Straus, Avery B. Andrews, New York; C.W. Bangs, New York; Henry E. Russell, Boston; the Rev. Dr. Henry Van Dyke, Mayor McClellan, Paul Mordon, St. Clair McKelway, Gov. E.G. McAlpin, Melville E. Stone, Hen. and Mrs. Stewart B. Woodford, Patrick Calhoun, New York; Isidore Straus, C.C. Cuyler, New York.
Paul D. Cravath, Vice President Fairbanks, Nicholas Murray Butler, A.R. McClure, Admiral Schley, Col. William Jay, New York; Mayor Reyburn of Philadelphia, John D. Crimmins, New York; Secretary of the Treasury George Bruce Cortelyou, the Rev. Dr. George H. Lorimer of Philadelphia, New York State Supreme Court Justice A.L. Erlanger, William B. Hornblower, New York; ex-Secretary of the Treasury Charles S. Fairchild, George Peabody Wetmore, John G. Milburn, Henry Marquand of New York, J.G. Hemphill, Charleston, S.C.; James G. Blaine, New York; ex-Secretary of State Richard Olney, Boston.
Cleveland will stand out in history as one who achieved his popularity by invariably placing the interests of the Nation above those of classes, however influential.The Morning Post in a highly laudatory editorial says:
Cleveland was one of the great men of his time. He had Bismark's strength and Bismark's breadth of views and more than Bismark's honesty. As President he did not life a finger for the Democratic Party, but merely served the United States. He was the strongest man that has lived i the White House since the death of Washington.
Cleveland gained renown among partisans and adversaries as a stainless, high-principled patriot.
Mr. Cleveland was the personification of the modest, quiet, fearless, honerable American type, which latterly has been pushed into the background. Although it sounds strange, Cleveland against his own will was morally the founder of the present American imperialism.
When such report is made and accepted [referring to the report of the commission appointed to determine the true boundary line] it will, in my opinion, be the duty of the United States to resist, as a willful aggression upon its rights and interests, the appropriation by Great Britain of any lands or the exercise of governmental jurisdiction over any territory which, after investigation, we have determined of right to belong to Venezuela. In making these recommendations I am fully alive to the responsibility incurred and keenly realize all the consequences that may follow. I am, nevertheless, firm in my conviction that, while it is a grievous thing to contemplate the two great English-speaking peoples of the world as being otherwise than friendly competitors in the onward march of civilization and strenuous and worthy rivals in all the arts of peace, there is no calamity which a great nation can invite which equals that which follows a supine submission to wrong and injustice and the consequent loss of national self-respect and honor, beneath which are shielded and defended a people's safety and greatness.The message was sent in on Dec. 17. It sent a thrill through the civilized world. It read, as every one thought, like an invitation to war. The stock markets were affected, panics threatened. Men of great, good judgement believed that Mr. Cleveland had made a fatal error and prepared to do their utmost to avert a catastrophe.
OYSTER BAY, L.I., June 24. -- This proclamation was issued by the President immediately on hearing of Mr. Cleveland's death:
To the People of the United States:
"Oyster Bay, June 24, 1908.
"Mrs. Grover Cleveland, Princeton,
"Your telegram shocked me greatly. Mrs. Roosevelt joins in very deep and sincere sympathy. I have, of course, abandoned my intention of starting to-day for the New London boat races, so that if the funeral is either Thursday or Friday I can attend. I can also attend if it is Sunday, but if it is Saturday a number of men are coming here from various parts of the country on a business engagement which I cannot well break.
"Will you direct some one to wire me when the funeral is to be and where?
President and Mrs. Roosevelt, accompanied by
Secretary Loeb, will leave Oyster Bay on a special train on Friday for Princeton to attend the funeral.
When they reach Long Island City, a tugboat
will be in readiness to transfer them to Jersey City, whence another special
train on the Pennsylvania Railroad will convey them to Princeton.
return over the same route to Oyster Bay immediately after the funeral services.
A beautiful floral wreath was ordered by the President to be sent in his name and that of Mrs. Roosevelt to Princeton; and placed on the bier of the former President.
Gov. Hughes also made this statement:
State of New York, Executive Chamber.
I announce with deep regret the death of Grover Cleveland., Mayor of Buffalo, Governor of this State, twice President of the United States. He personified civic virtue and exalted the ideal of public office as a public trust.
Firm, resolute, incorruptible, unseduced by flattery and unshaken by fear, just and tenacious of conviction, he enriched the Nation with a noble example of strength and fidelity.
And it is fitting that New York, to whom he gave the earlier service which tested and revealed his character, should pay to his memory the tribute of esteem due to one of her most honorable and distinguished servants.
Now, therefore, I, Charles E. Hughes, Governor of the State of New York, do request that the flags upon all the public buildings of the State, including armories and arsenals, be displayed at half-mast up to and including Friday, the twenty-sixth day of June, nineteen hundred and eight, and that the citizens of the State unite in appropriate marks of respect.
CHARLES E. HUGHES.
One of Three Greatest Presidents.
"As a public man, considering the splendid record that he made, he will be put
in the same class with Washington and Lincoln -- one of the three great Presidents that this country has had.
His greatness was justified by his
exceptionally strong character and his many intellectual gifts.
He was a
man of great moral strength, and having the advantage of a fine intellect
he thought seriously and deeply upon all subjects, and, having reached a
conclusion, particularly as to a principle of morals or religion, or public
weal, he was uncompromising.
He agreed with David Crockett that the first
thing was to determine what was right and then to do that thing.
"What he was in public life he was equally in private life; string in his views, tolerant in method, but uncompromising in principle. Most of his time was spent in promoting education and philanthropy -- work which entailed sacrifices of his time and personal convenience, without fee or hope of reward beyond the desire to do that which was useful and good. These occupied, when not in public life, most of his time, so that when we look over his career, though he reached the proverbial three score and ten years, it is not to be measured by years alone, but by his splendid deeds and lofty ideals which affected all who came within the range of his influence.
"Mr. Cleveland's ideal was that what was worth doing was worth doing well, and that, to the extent of his ability, even as to details, he should attend to them himself, made his life a laborious one, but at the same time a most useful one, furnishing a striking example of hos a man with a great intellect and wonderful grasp sufficient to direct any affair, no matter how large, was equally capable of serving and by himself amassing and carrying out the details of any undertaking."
Here are other tributes from men who knew Mr. Cleveland in public and private life:
FRANCIS LYNDE STETSON:
"I am deeply distressed at the loss of one of the greatest men this country has ever had. I do not feel that I care to say a great deal at this time."
PAUL MORTON, President of the Equitable Life:
"Grover Cleveland was a most remarkable man; deliberate in thought, sound in conclusions, and always careful in action. He was as simple as a child in his tastes, and as resolute as a giant in his integrity. He was the highest type of public servant, and it is to be regretted that we have so few men of his sturdy character in public life. He was a patriot rather than a partisan, and his moral courage to do what he thought was best for his country, regardless of his party, was the beginning od the independent thought throughout the United States which is now such a factor in National affairs."
Judge Parker's Praise.
EX-JUDGE ALTON B. PARKER:
"Yesterday Grover Cleveland was easily the foremost citizen of our country, enjoying a full measure of public confidence and affection. To-day we mourn his taking from us. We shall miss his wise counsel -- the word seasonably and courageously spoken, which love of country prompted. But we shall have with us the memory of his splendid manhood and distinguished public service, modestly rendered, with the public weal always and only in mind -- never a thought as to the effect on himself."
COL. E.S. FOWLER:
"Mr. Cleveland's death will be regretted by all good citizens. He stood for strict honesty and integrity in public office, and took the first stand in favor of real civil service reform. His fearless course in saving the financial credit of the United States at a time when many of his own party were in doubt will ever be remembered with credit to his memory and honor to his name."
EX-JUDGE W.A. DAY:
"It may be that no man is vitally necessary to any people, but some men are more necessary than others of their time. If it can be said of any man's precepts and example that they were of more value to our people than any others during the twenty-five years just closed, it seems to me that Mr. Cleveland's were so distinguished. His example will have a lasting effect for hood upon the American people."
"I am shocked and grieved to hear of Mr. Cleveland's death. He will easily rank as one of our greatest Presidents, and was a man of remarkable individuality; possessed of unusually sound judgment, and a keen sense of justice; strong moral fibre, great courage; a statesman in the best and most universal sense of that woed; a fine type of all that America stands for: common sense, industry, honesty, simplicity, tolerance, frankness, manliness, patriotism, and bravery."
"I have lost a friend whose place cannot be filled. I regard him as one of the greatest and most statesmanlike men this country has ever produced. The duties and responsibilities of the high positions which he has held in the country's service were faithfully and courageously performed, often under trying circumstances, and he never faltered from doing what he regarded as being right and for the country's best interests. His memory will be long and warmly cherished, and history will record his name among the country's strongest and ablest Presidents."
DISTRICT ATTORNEY JEROME:
"I think that none of our Presidents since Lincoln surpassed Mr. Cleveland in rectitude of purpose and in that real patriotism which leads a man to make large personal sacrifices for what he esteems the public welfare. His conception of a public office as a public trust governed his own conduct, though the temptations of a selfish character to depart from it, at times, but have been great."
EDEN B. THOMAS:
"The death of Mr. Cleveland is greatly to be deplored and is particularly unfortunate, coming at a time when more than ever the country requires the advice and counsel of so strong a character. The public mind, confused by sentimental reformers and designing politicians, needed at the moment to be wisely influenced in its actions by the ripe experience and sound judgment of such a man, who, possessing as he did to an unusual extent the confidence of all, was in a position to assist in restoring to normal condition the commercial affairs of the country."
"This news is a crushing blow, coming as it does directly on top of a message I received yesterday from Mrs. Cleveland saying that Mr. Cleveland was better. For nearly twenty years I have known Mr. Cleveland intimately. He was, I believe, a greater man than we yet realize. His character was rugged and splendid, yet he was one of the sweetest tempered and most loyal of friends. No tribute I could pay him would be excessive."
WILLIAM B. HORNBLOWER:
"Strong, sturdy, steadfast, through good report and bad report, in sunshine and in storm, never seeking popular applause, but only to do his duty as he saw it and serve the people to his utmost ability, Grover Cleveland was a noble character. His name and fame will grow more illustrious as time passes and his true greatness assumes its proper perspective in our National history."
A. BARTON HEPBURN:
"A great figure in American history has passed away. Mr. Cleveland's hold upon the public arose from his unswerving honesty and uncompromising adherence to the policies he believed to be right. His life and life work will stand out in brilliant contrast to the opportunism and subserviency that characterize current politics."
"No one who came in contact with President Cleveland could fail to be impressed by his broad mind and always calm temperament, his direct honesty, and great sincerity. He was one of the big men this country has produced, and what his death means will be more deeply realized as time goes on."
WILLIAM F. SHEEHAN:
"I considered Mr. Cleveland the greatest man in America. I had known him since before he was Mayor of Buffalo. He was in every sense a big man and a noble character. His mind was broad gauged in every way. The whole Nation feels the loss of such a man as he."
Stevenson Greatly Grieved.
BLOOMINGTON, Ill., June 24. -- Ex-Vice President
Adlai Stevenson was greatly shocked when informed of the death of Mr. Cleveland.
Mr. Stevenson said:
"I am deeply grieved to learn of the death of Mr. Cleveland. His will be a large place in history. He was the possessor of great talents, of untiring industry, and of executive capacity that had few parallels. His eight years of administration of the Government will safely endure the sure test of time. His personal and official integrity were beyond all possible question."
From Hilary A. Herbert.
By Telegraph to the Editor of The Times.
PORT CARLING, Ontaria, June 24. -- Mr. Cleveland was a Democrat of the old school who feared God but not his fellow-man, yet he had an unfaltering faith in the final and matured judgment of his countrymen. This faith consoled him in many a dark hour. He was generally somewhat slow in reaching conclusions, and was much oftener influenced by the counsel of his friends than the public was ever disposed to believe, yet such was his devotion to duty as he saw it that, though he loved applause, he would have pursued without a shadow of turning the lines pointed out to him by his judgment and his conscience, even had it been made clear to him that popular approval would never follow.
His idea of government was justice to every individual, high and low, rich and poor, justice to every interest, great or small. That to him was what Democracy meant. HILARY A. HERBERT.
A National Loss -- Olney
BOSTON, June 24. -- Richard Olney, Secretary of State in President Cleveland's Cabinet, said:
"Mr. Cleveland's death is not a surprise, but comes nevertheless as a severe shock and an irreparable loss. The loss is nothing less than National, and his countrymen everywhere, irrespective of party, will realize that there has gone from us a great and notable figure, a statesman unexcelled in his day and generation for patriotism, for lofty convictions of public duty, and for the courage to put them into effect."
Charles S. Fairchild's Comment.
BOSTON, June 24. -- Charles S. Fairchild, Secretary of the Treasury in Cleveland's first Administration, who was in this city to-day, when informed of Mr. Cleveland's death said, "Just say for me, please, that Grover Cleveland was a great and good man."
Death a Shock to Col. Vilas.
MADISON, Wis., June 24. -- Col.
William F. Vilas, ex-United States Senator and Secretary of the Interior
in President Cleveland's Cabinet, when informed of Mr. Cleveland's death,
"Passing time has already done much, and now will do more to clear away the coulds of contemporary differences and leave his lofty character, his great powers, and his eminent services to his country in the undimmed splendor by which history will display them."
A Typical American -- Harmon.
DETROIT, Mich., June 24. -- Judson Harmon, ex-Attorney
General in President Cleveland's Cabinet, telegraphed from Charievoix, Mich.,
regarding the death of Grover Cleveland:
"He was a typical product of American blood, life, and training. His sense of duty always overshadowed all other motives."
Duty His One Rule -- Smith.
June 24. -- Gov. Hoke Smith, who was Secretary of the Interior under President
Cleveland, issued this statement to-day:
"He was big in brain and in body. Duty was with him the constant rule of conduct."
D.R. Francis's Regrets.
ST. LOUIS, Mo., June 24. -- Ex-Gov. D.R. Francis,
who was Secretary of the Interior in the second Administration of President
Cleveland, expressed profound regret when told of the death of the former
"Mr. Cleveland was a truly great man and a patriot of the highest type. The services he rendered the Republic have never been fully appreciated, but will be held in higher and higher estimate as the years roll by. His taking off at this juncture is an overwhelming loss to the country as well as to his party."
N.J. Colman Grieved.
ST. LOUIS, Mo., June 24. -- Upon being apprised of the death of ex-President
Cleveland, Norman J. Colman, Secretary of Agriculture in President Cleveland's
first Administration, said:
"I am deeply grieved at the sad intelligence. I cannot speak strongly enough in commendation of his excellent qualities of heart and head. He had but one ambition, and that was to serve the people of the United States in the best and most faithful manner."
Don M. Dickinson Ill.
DETROIT, Mich., June 24. -- Don M. Dickinson of this city, Postmaster General
in President Cleveland's Cabinet, is ill in a sanitarium at Flint, Mich.,
suffering from nervous breakdown.
This afternoon Mr. Dickinson was informed of the death of Mr. Cleveland. He said it was a great shock to him as he had hoped that the ex-President had entirely recovered from his recent illness. He was overcome by the news.
Special to The New York Times.
LINCOLN, Neb., June 24. -- W.J. Bryan made this
"The death of ex-President Grover Cleveland brings to a sudden end the phenomenal career of one of the strongest characters known to the political world during the present generation. Like every commanding figure, he had zealous supporters and earnest opponents, but those who differed from him were as ready as his warmest friends to concede to him the possession of elements of leadership to an extraordinary degree.
"He was deliberate in conviction and ever ready to accept responsibility for what he did. Few man have exerted a more positive influence upon those associated with them. We are not far enough from the period in which his work was done to measure accurately his place in history, but the qualities which made him great are the part of a Nation's heritage, and universal sorrow is felt at his death."
Very early in the
day orders from Washington brought to half staff the flags upon the Sub-Treasury,
Custom House, the Assay Office, and the other Federal buildings and structures
in the city.
Wall Street went into mourning even before the city and Federal authorities had half staffed their flags. One of the first drooping flags seen in Wall Street was that upon the office of J.P. Morgan Co., at Broad and Wall Streets. This big flag trailed almost to the street when it was lowered.
The Chamber of Commerce decided to hold a meeting on Friday at 12 o'clock to take action on the death of Mr. Cleveland. The Stock Exchange voted to close during the funeral services of the former President, the hour to be determined later.
Even the Board of Governors passed a resolution saying that this Republic had lost in Mr. Cleveland "its greatest American, its wisest statesman, and its most unselfish patriot," and the Curb brokers adopted resolutions deploring the loss of "this great American citizen, whose life made for the stability of the institutions of the country and for the safety and usefulness od the people."
Representative members of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick will meet Friday at noon in the office of Morgan J. O'Brien at 2 Rector Street to decide upon suitable action in memory of Mr. Cleveland.
The Federal Grand Jury adjourned at 1 o'clock yesterday afternoon out of respect for the memory of Mr. Cleveland, upon motion of United States Attorney Louis Ogden O'Brien, seconded by Commissioner John A. Shields.
The courts all over New York City yesterday showed regret for the passing of the great statesman. Justice Francis M. Scott of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court said that Mr. Cleveland had belonged to that section of the Democratic Party opposed to Tammany Hall and its methods. Justice Scott remembered, he said, how Mr. Cleveland had worked until late hours at Albany when he was Governor. He felt that he was a greater men than he had opportunity to show; that if a stupendous emergency had arisen while he was in office he would have been the one man among millions with enough reserve power to meet adequately such an emergency.
Justice Frank C. Laughlin, also of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, who is a Republican in politics, said that the dead statesman was the greatest man the Democrats ever had, and one of the "few who enjoyed equally the love and admiration of Republicans."
In adjourning Trial Term, Part VIII., of the Supreme Court, Justice Fitzgerald ordered the clerk to spread upon the minutes of the court an announcement of the death of the Democratic President, together with an expression of the Justice's admiration for "this great man." In his declining years, went on Justice Fitzgerald, he had been the foremost private citizen of the Republic, enjoying the respectful admiration deliberately rendered him by all his countrymen, irrespective of party.
Justice Giegerich, in Trial Term, Part III., of the Supreme Court, after expressing his personal appreciation of the greatness of Mr. Cleveland and his sorrow at his death, ordered that the regret of the New York Bar at the loss be spread upon the minutes of the court.
Special to The New York Times.
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., June 24. -- On being informed of the death of ex-President Cleveland to-day, Gov., Guild, Jr., of Massachusetts, said:
The two foremost traits in his character were sincerity and courage. That he was unable to carry out his tariff plans was not his fault.
He dared, however, not only to have convictions, but to act upon them regardless of political results, and his own honor was not more dear to him than that of his country.
From The Sun.
In the long perspective
the three most conspicuous features of Mr. Cleveland's public career perhaps
are these: His steadfast fidelity to the cause that was known as civil service reform, his readiness to go to war with the strongest of naval powers
in defense of a principle that is part of the Monroe Doctrine, and his courageous
but strictly constitutional application of Federal force in the case of the Chicago railway riots in 1894.
In other days the ideas of Mr. Cleveland and those of this newspaper with regard to many things were notoriously not in accord. This circumstance possibly makes it proper to say now what it will always be pleasant for us to remember, namely, that the personal breach ceased to exist years ago, and that The Sun has long numbered Grover Cleveland among its constant readers and faithful friends.
From The World.
One of the commonplace
charges of Mr. Cleveland's opponents among those of his own political faith
is that he wrecked his party.
It would be more nearly correct to say that
the party wrecked itself.
His whole public career was a demonstration of political courage which, as Mr. Roosevelt truly says, "quailed before no hostility when once he was convinced where his duty lay."
From The American.
of Grover Cleveland at Princeton removes from the active affairs of man in America one who has occupied a large and prominent place in the history
of his generation.
As the only Democratic President since James Buchanan
in 1856, and for two terms the occupant of that office with a Republican
Mr. Cleveland's public life is naturally and indissolubly
linked with the only creative and executive period which the Democratic Party has known during the half century in which we live.
There is but one mind among Americans as to the virtues and graces of the noble woman who survives him. It is doubtful if in all the Republic there is any woman more sincerely admired and beloved than Frances Folsom Cleveland.
From The Press.
His iron will and unflinching spirit did not permit him to falter in attempting to perform what his conscience and his sense of duty impelled him to achieve, though his task be accompanied by disaster to his country, the wreck of his party, and, before the end, the literal shrieks of his fellow-men. Indeed multitudes of the American people heard his name only to shudder at it. Yet time and better fortune mellowed that public opinion, which, unmindful of his works, respected what he was. There was honor from all in his closing years.
From The Tribune.
As President Mr. Cleveland left a record which does him great personal credit. As a political leader, however, he was far less fortunate. He was the foremost Democrat of his day. Yet even before he left the Presidency he had lost the support of his party and had seen it fall a prey to bitter factional strife. He was no Jefferson and no Jackson.